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The Yoruba Culture

Yoruba people are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in Africa, and the majority of them speak the Yoruba language. The Yoruba constitute approximately 35 percent of Nigeria’s total population, and around 40 million individuals throughout the region of West Africa. 

While the majority of the Yoruba live in western Nigeria, there are also substantial indigenous Yoruba communities in Benin, Ghana, Togo and the Caribbean.

A significant percentage of Africans enslaved during the TransAtlantic Slave Trade in the Americas managed to maintain the Yoruba spiritual religion known as Aborisha.

Indeed, the initiation and practice of Aborisha spiritual religion offers a route to all people of African descent, who were victims of slave trade in the Americas or the Caribbean, to make claim to Yoruba heritage.

The Yorubas are the main ethnic group in the states of Ekiti, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, and Oyo, which are subdivisions of Nigeria; they also constitute a sizable proportion of Kwara and Kogi States as well as Edo State.

Major Cities and Towns

Traditionally, the Yorubas organised themselves into networks of related villages, towns and kingdoms; with most of them headed by an Oba (King) or Baale (a nobleman or mayor). Major Yoruba cities and towns include Ile-Ife, IbadanLagos, Ijebu Ode, AbeokutaAkure, Ilorin, Ijebu-Igbo, Ogbomosho, Ondo, Badagry, Ado-Ekiti, Osogbo, Ilesa, Oyo, Owo, Kabba, Offa, Ilesa, Ilobu, Ede etc. There are other Yoruba cities and towns such as Ketu, Sabe, Dassa and others in Republic of Benin.

There are other towns and cities with historical affiliation with the Yoruba people because they share one or more similarities together. Some of these cities and towns are Benin city, Warri, Auchi, Okene etc.

The Igbo Culture

Igbo people are industrious, friendly and educated people and they played an important role in Nigerian political development.

Igbo people have a dynamic and fascinating cultural heritage that says lots about them, and most of the Igbo people are Christians. Their cultures are further divided into many groups, due to dialects and boundaries among the eastern states in particular and a good sample of this is their traditional way of welcoming visitors, which is usually offering kola to guests, even before they made their mission known.

The Igbo people have a melodic music style into which they incorporate various percussion instruments; the Udu, which is essentially designed from a clay jug; an Ekwe, which is formed from a hollowed log; and the Ogene, a hand bell designed from forged iron.

Other instruments include Opi – a wind instrument similar to the flute; Igba, and Ichaka. They also have a style of music called Ikorodo, which involves a vocal performance accompanied by several musical instruments.

Another musical form among the Igbos is Highlife, which is a fusion of jazz and traditional music and widely popular in West Africa.

Major Cities and Towns

Most of the cities and towns in eastern Nigeria are predominantly occupied by the Igbo people. Amongst these main cities are: Enugu City – The Coal CityOwerri, Onitsha, Asaba, Anambra, Abia, Abakaliki, Yenagoa, Orlu etc. 

Other cities and towns in South-East and South-South Nigeria are Calabar – The people’s paradisePort Harcourt, Uyo, Eket, Bonny Island,  Ikot Ekpene, Abak.

The Hausa Culture

The Hausas are Sahelian people mainly located in northern Nigeria, southeastern Niger, Sudan, Cameroon, Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire, and Chad and many Fulani in these regions barely distinguish themselves from the Hausa.

Majority of Hausas have been Muslim since the 14th century, and have converted many other Nigerian tribes to the Muslim faith by contact, trade etc. The architecture of the Hausa is perhaps one of the least known but most beautiful in Nigeria.

Many of their early mosques and palaces are bright and colorful and often include intricate engraving or elaborate symbols designed into the facade.

Music and art play important roles in everyday life of this group of people. From a young age, Hausa children participate in dances, which are held in meeting places such as the market.

Work songs often accompany activities in the rural areas and in the markets. Story-telling, local dramas, and musical performances are also common forms of traditional entertainment.

Major Cities and Towns

Many of the towns and cities in northern Nigeria had been predominantly occupied by the Hausa-Fulani people dated back to the stone age. Amongst these main cities are: Kano City – known as the groundnuts pyramids and indigo city. Others are Biram, Katsina, AbujaBauchi, Birnin Kebbi, Damaturu, Dutse, Gombe, Gusau, Jalingo, Jebba, josKaduna, Katsina, Lafia, Maiduguri, Makurdi, Sokoto, Suleja, Yola, Zaria.

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